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In Today’s Struggle for Principle with Trump there Will be No Republican Stephen A. Douglas

As time passes and the only Congressional GOP opposition to the Trump Administration continues to come from folks who have decided to walk away from Washington politics, this looks increasingly likely. That will mean the midterm elections in November and the 2020 campaign may be the only chances American people have to rid ourselves of the continuing destruction of democracy he represents – barring, of course, surprise revelations which may arise from the Mueller investigation. – RJC

Padre Steve's World...Musings of a Progressive Realist in Wonderland

Stephen A. Douglas

Friends of Padre Steve’s World,

As I watch President Trump’s administration attack the law, the Constitution, and violate the civil rights and human rights of citizens as well as people who have come to the United States to flee oppression and danger at home; to threaten freedom of speech and freedom of the press; to categorize political opponents inside and outside of his party as traitors; to legitimize the most repressive dictatorial regimes while attacking longstanding allies; even as he works to destroy the work of American Presidents and diplomats to build a world order that has brought great benefit to the United States and the world by defeating the Nazis, Imperial Japan, and eventually the Soviet Union. He has chosen the choice of being a rogue superpower rather than being the moderating and stabilizing force in the world that it has played since World War Two…

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To Tell the Truth

Perhaps the world has never seen or heard an American President with as distant a relationship to the truth as does Donald J. Trump. Starting with his questioning the place of Barrack Obama’s birth (and hence the legitimacy of his Presidency) before he even announced his candidacy for the position himself, our current Commander-in-Chief has subjected the American people, and by extension the world at large, to a seemingly endless stream of falsehoods to justify his own legitimacy in the position and the actions he has taken in order to demolish as much of the legacy of his predecessor as possible and replace it with legislation and policies to create a greater, more lasting legacy of his own brilliance.

Throughout the 2016 campaign, Trump was constantly using insults, innuendo and otherwise derogatory remarks to put down his primary opponents and their various political stances on the issues of the day. He further used his demagogic talents to slander and misrepresent millions of people, foreign and domestic, in advocating policy changes that would harmfully impact the lives of countless immigrants, young and impoverished people and foreign trade, economic, political and military relations with longtime allies and adversaries alike. Since taking office, he has done little to temper his brash and often confrontational style of trying to get his own way against all opposition by force of personality and use of his bully pulpit.

Through his use of appointments to his cabinet level and other key Executive Branch positions, as well as judicial appointments he is responsible for (with advice and consent of the Senate in many instances) he has attempted to mold an administration to facilitate his vision of what he wants the government to be accomplishing under his leadership. This is expected of any President. What distinguishes the way in which President Trump has performed these duties from others who have preceded him is the fact that he has often gone out of his way to appoint people whose main goal seems to be to dismantle the Department or Agency which they have been nominated to lead, or to use their agencies to achieve results which are diametrically opposed to stated reasons they were created for in the first place. The poster child for this particular form of ill-conceived appointment is Scott Pruitt, who has done an excellent job of beginning the transformation of the EPA into the Environmental Poisoning Agency while simultaneously reaching whole new levels when it comes to wasteful spending of taxpayer dollars.

Questionable business practices on the part of this President also leave much to be desired. His properties are definitely getting richer at taxpayer expense, if only in terms of money brought in through increased security when he visits them (which at least in the case of Mar-a-Lago in Florida has been quite frequent). Money spent by foreign governments and various lobbying groups at locations owned by the Trump business empire are also called into question by many who are used to high ranking elected and appointed officials divesting or placing their wealth in blind trusts while in office so as to not raise questions of corruption. Add to this the fact that this President has thus far successfully refused to disclose his personal tax returns and a picture emerges of a person who not only expects to rule rather than lead this country but views himself immune to the expectations we have of our public officials in terms of transparency when it comes to both personal conduct and financial dealings.

While President Trump spends an inordinate amount of time berating political opponents (here and abroad) as well as virtually the entire media industry (save Fox News) and even his own cabinet members and the GOP leadership of both Houses of Congress, he constantly spices his commentary up by making easily refutable statements as the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth. He gets away with it by denouncing those who call him out on his lies as purveyors of “fake news”. He has a sizable base that accepts everything he says as either unassailable gossip or of no importance at all. For the most part, Democrats pointing out his lies are only acting as is expected of political opponents. The only GOP Congresscritters who call him out are themselves calling it quits, so they don’t count either when it comes to changing Trump’s approval ratings.

The effect that Trump’s erratic public pronouncements (most glaringly apparent in his Twitter rants) will have on foreign relations remains to be seen. He will probably find that his bullying, authoritarian leadership style (I used the term “leadership” in relationship to what he does very loosely) does not go over as well in foreign countries as it does here. His recent handling of the Iran nuclear deal, the way he has been dealing with the on-again/off-again summit meeting with North Korea and the recently announced tariff war he seems to be aiming at Canada, Mexico and Europe will undoubtedly further hurt his standing among most of our nearest and dearest military, political and economic allies going back at least as far as World War II and the Cold War. He cajoled France and the UK in join in that farce of an attack in Syria in response to an alleged chemical attack by Assad, but it remains to be seen what sort of response his aggressive stance on Iran will get when it comes to adhering to his sanctions regime.

The effect that his sudden imposition of tariffs on European, Canadian and Mexican goods may also blow up in his face, if the economy sees a significant downturn as a result of what amounts to a large tax increase affecting huge segments of our economy actually does occur as many economists are predicting. Alienating Mexico seems to have been a long-simmering need for Trump. He never seems to have anything good to say about the country, its people or its government and thinks he can just command them to build his wall to end our immigration problems for once and for all. Now he’s also attacking Canada on trade. The most recent economic reports were excellent in terms of employment, wages and profits are concerned. He loves praising his economic genius every chance he gets. He probably will have a different take once his blunders start having a negative impact on future reports (tweet firings of key economic advisers, perhaps?).

The overarching way in which Trump appears to be trying to do his job as President is troubling. He seems to be trying to run our government as if it is his government to do with as he pleases. Laws and rules that have operated successfully to differing degrees for hundreds of years are being thrown out the window. He’s getting away with quite a bit that other Presidents would not attempt because they saw their powers limited by the Constitution. Courts have stood up to some of his executive orders and prevented some of the harsh attempts at policy change from taking place, but his party controls the Senate and is busy ratify federal judges as opposed to refusing to do so when Obama was President. Given enough time, those courts may be shaped in a manner more amenable to Trump for decades to come (lifetime appointments vs the need for re-election for Congress Members, for instance).

Congress needs to step up its game when it comes to fulfilling its Constitutional duties as a check on the powers of the Presidency. That means the GOP leadership and other members need to either be willing to stop the overt and covert attempts Trump is making to run the country like an autocratic organization such as his private corporations and restore the democratic foundations that give a greater voice to the people as a whole. We don’t need to further devolve into an oligarchy which gives power to wealth and vice-versa, limiting advancement opportunities for most and subject ever more people to the ravages of poverty. Stopping him in his tracks when he tells blatant lies, whatever they may be, would be a good start.

Suggested Further Readings:

Bill Maher Wants Obama and Comey To ‘Start Penalizing Liars’ Like Trump — Here’s How

Grab onto something steady. Trump’s on the phone.

There is no one who can save Trump from himself

Team Trump: Arrogance as a virtue

Trump’s Rate of Lying Has Increased Almost 33 Percent Since Ranking After First 100 Days

Here Is the Psychological Condition That Best Explains Trump’s Twisted Worldview

Shepard Smith Dings Trump’s Gun Control Turnaround At NRA Convention

Trump Is an Unrepentant Liar—The Mainstream Media Is Finally Calling Him One

Iran: Deja Vu All Over Again

The New York Daily News front page headline (at least the version that finds its way to convenience stores in Northeastern Pennsylvania) informed me that the school shootings yesterday in Santa Fe, Texas had catapulted student and teacher deaths in such events in 2018 ahead of those of US military personnel for the year. Donald Trump and his recently reconstituted foreign policy/national security team seem determined to alter this fact forthwith through increased military activity. Withdrawing from the Iran nuclear weapons deal and cancelling a scheduled summit meeting between himself and the leader of North Korea are the two latest major foreign policy moves made by President Trump since forming his new foreign policy team with Mike Pompeo as Secretary of State and John Bolton as National Security Advisor.

After the overthrow of the Shah of Iran in 1979 and the subsequent formation of the Islamic Republic, relations between our countries have been decidedly unfriendly. The Shah himself had been installed in power by means of a CIA engineered coup. He was a staunch US ally in the region until his overthrow. The Shah’s reign was not one marked by strict adherence to democracy or protection of individual civil or human rights. His regime was marked by brutal repression and suppression of dissent by means of the military and secret police. That the man never received the Nobel Peace Prize surprised no one. Once he was gone, an incipient democracy movement attempted to form a new government, but was quickly overwhelmed by radical Islamic forces which brought about the Islamic Republic that still exists there today.

The early days of the Islamic Republic were significantly marked by the occupation of the US embassy in Tehran and taking hostage of American personnel there by a group of Islamic extremist students. It could be argued that dealing with.  the Iranian hostage crisis played a significant role in the election of Ronald Reagan to the Presidency in 1980. The Iran/Contra affair, which helped gain the release of those hostages while helping to support an insurgency against the recently established Sandinista regime in Nicaragua, was another political scandal that plagued the Reagan Administration but failed to topple it. The hostages were released on the date when Reagan was inaugurated for his first term on January 20, 1981.

Despite the way in which the hostage crisis was ultimately resolved, relations between every subsequent US Administration and the powers that be in Tehran have never been cordial. The US aided Iraq in it’s war with Iran in the 1980’s, before Saddam Hussein was seen as the world’s enemy prior to Desert Storm in 1991 and remained perceived as such until deposed by George W. Bush’s invasion after an extended blitz of Intelligence information was disseminating claiming that Hussein was a big supporter of Al Qaeda after the 9/11 terror attacks on the US. Claims were made as to the existence of Iraqi weapons of mass destruction which seemingly miraculously disappeared before ever being used or discovered by our forces after the invasion. Iraq, Iran and North Korea were jointly accused by George W, Bush of being an Axis of Evil confronting the forces of good (spearheaded, of course, by the US).

Iran has remained a thorn in the side of US foreign policy since the overthrow of the Shah in 1979. The country is far larger than Iraq or Afghanistan in terms of both population and military capability. Neither of those countries turned out to be as easily conquered and/or occupied by coalition forces as had been promised by the George W. Bush Administration, a fact that sees our country bogged down in a quagmire to the very day. Regime change in Iran seems unlikely to be any more easily attainable than it has proven to be in those two countries.

In 2015, when the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (US, UK, France,Russia and China), along with Germany, reached an agreement with Iran on a protocol meant to insure that Iran, which had been working toward a nuclear weapons capability of its own, would halt all such work in exchange for an easing of crippling economic sanctions imposed to slow down/stop them from attaining nuclear power status. Throughout the time from the Iran Hostage Crisis to the present, political support for creating regime change in Iran has existed in this country. Israel and Saudi Arabia, for differing reasons, have also been interested in bringing about such change. Many here did not support the agreement reached in 2015 and fought for a harder stance against Iran from this country.

Along came Donald Trump, winning the American Presidency in 2016. Trump has made no secret of his disdain for just about any policy, treaty or other endeavor championed by his predecessor, Barack Obama. Early on, he withdrew from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) negotiated by the Obama Administration but not ratified by Congress. He further expressed interest in renegotiating the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA, between the US, Canada and Mexico) and any other trade deals that he sees as detrimental to US interests. One of his very first acts in regard to international agreements involved his public intention to remove American participation in the Paris Climate Accords dealing with implementing steps to ward off devastating climate changes taking place due to manmade practices which most scientists agree  are causing detrimental long-range climate changes which threaten to make the planet a much less hospitable place to survive in for people and the environment as a whole.

The penchant that Trump has displayed to tossing out painstakingly negotiated agreements of international and even worldwide importance at the whim of himself and his appointed “experts” certainly is calling into question, even among our staunchest, long-term allies, the dependability of the US to follow through on agreements of any sort that we have ever negotiated. He has seemed to revel in insulting many of our closest allies in terms of trade, defense, national security and just about any major policy area people would care  to discuss. He takes unilateral action that either blindsides our allies or flat out contradicts their outlook on the facts and intelligence dealing with these very important strategic and tactical matters. Where the Iran Nuclear Deal is concerned, he (and his fellow outspoken war hawks Bolton and Pompeo) finds shortcomings that the leaders of all the other parties to the agreement do not identify as even existing. Where he is complaining of Iranian failure to comply (sound familiar – Bush and Iraq dealing with inspections for the ephemeral Weapons of Mass Destruction?), both the other signatories of the agreement and the international agencies designated to certify compliance or non-compliance by the Iranians to the terms stated disagree with his assessment of the situation.

In recent days, Trump has shown a marked preference for shaking up the established world order when it comes to issues like nuclear weapons, unfair trade practices and the like. He makes pronouncements that have profound implications for major actors without even bothering to consult with them in advance – or just plain disregarding their advice as to how to proceed on a given issue if it disagrees with his preconceived conclusions on the matter. From day-to-day, his pronouncements on something as major as a proposed summit meeting with the leader of North Korea were tweeted out and otherwise published without so much as talking to the South Korean or Japanese governments. The peoples of East Asia and the Middle East surely deserve to have their interests considered. They will be the first to feel the direct effects of any military conflict that may arise due to the rash actions of a man who brags to the world about the size of his nuclear “button” and his willingness to use it if he thinks it necessary.

Congress remains largely silent in these discussions of power politics concerning international affairs. His cabinet apparently is incapable of persuading him of much, perhaps because they have seen how quick he is to dump and replace people who publicly express differences of opinion with him. Most GOP politicians – especially those in leadership position in Congress – either agree with him or are too afraid of him to call him out. Neither of these options speak much about their ability to do their jobs as representatives of the people who elected them to the House or Senate. Continuing to allow the President of the United States to sully the reputations of those whom preceded him or ruin the trust placed in this country when it comes to work with other nations and fulfill the responsibilities it took upon itself in negotiating international agreements is unacceptable. We owe it to ourselves and the world at large to provide the checks and balances on executive power contained within the Constitution and subsequent laws. Having millions of people in the Middle East or Korea suffer because of some ill-considered twitter tirade by a hot-headed chief executive who decides to place schoolyard bully on a global scale need not and must not become our legacy as a nation.

Suggested Further Readings:

Trump’s Iran deal announcement has experts fearing the worst for the Middle East

Trump Further Trashes USA Reputation with Iran Sanctions

Trump Lying About Iran Deal — May Make Things Worse

‘This Is How the Iran War Started’: Grave Warnings as Trump Ditches Nuclear Deal

Effort to ‘Provoke Iran’? Right After Trump Nuclear Deal Decision, Israel Launches Airstrikes in Syria

Watch: Sanders Responds to Trump’s "Reckless" Decision to Violate Iran Nuclear Deal

Obama Just Made A Chump Of Trump By Destroying His Iran Deal Lies

‘There was no reason to do this now’

War With Iran–Is It Inevitable?

Iran: Now We Can Resume Nuclear Program ‘Without Limitation’

Trump Has Now Opened the Door to War Against Iran

Here’s how the rest of the world is responding to Trump’s decision to withdraw from the Iran deal

Islamic Terrorism Has an Advocate in the Oval Office

Trump’s Moves on Iran Are From the Iraq War Playbook

The U.S. Is Being Sleepwalked Into War With Iran

Iran Prepares to Restart Nuclear Program, Blasts Israel and U.S. Over Attacks in Syria

The People Made the First New Deal. Can the People Make Another?

Thoughts to ponder going forward towards the midterm election this November and onward to 2020. Surely Trump can be defeated by a genuine grassroots progressive movement nationwide exposing his rhetoric for the false choices and fraudulent promises it presents. – RJC

Be Freedom

WV-TeachersStrike-ap-imgMassive Protest and Organizing Created the New Deal

The kind of electoral victories we need will take far more than standard electioneering and Facebook debates.  Let’s look at what it took to create the New Deal so we can see just how challenging the task ahead is. During the Great Depression massive organizing efforts and protest movements were necessary just to reform the two-party system. New Deal history strongly suggests that the current dementer v. demexit debate is largely a waste of time until we organize movements powerful enough to upset the existing order.

In our memory Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the standard bearer of the New Deal but it did not start that way.  FDR was a reluctant reformer pushed into progressive action because millions of people were willing to experiment with radical solutions.

Mass movements, third parties and revolutionary parties, labor upheaval, agrarian unrest, powerful populists, discontented veterans, and Democratic congressmen

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Let’s Be Honest. Anti-Abortion Doesn’t Make You Pro-Life | Crooks and Liars

Excellent essay by Ramona Grigg on the difference between being anti-abortion and being truly pro-life. Being pro-birth is a fairly easy distinction that leaves out consideration of many important aspects to an extremely complex issue overall. Being pro-life does not end with the birth of an infant, but also addresses issues that only begin at that point. – RJC


If you force a woman to bear a child she doesn’t want, it should be on you to insure health, wealth, and happiness to both. The real sin is in turning your back on her once your interference brings about the outcome you were hoping for.

Source: Let’s Be Honest. Anti-Abortion Doesn’t Make You Pro-Life | Crooks and Liars

The Haymarket Riot: “It is a Subterranean Fire” by Elizabeth Schulte

An excellent argument could be made from an historical perspective for moving Labor Day in this country to May 1st. Momentous events have occurred in the past regarding labor and workers’ rights on that date. The Haymarket Riot in 1886 occurred in the aftermath of protests urging the institution of an eight hour workday. Other such events have also occurred on May 1st – both here and abroad. – RJC


via The Haymarket Riot: “It is a Subterranean Fire” by Elizabeth Schulte

Debunking the Myth of American Exceptionalism + The Day DC Was Bombed

Reblogged from Dandelion Salad and written by David Swanson, The absurdity of some of the justifications made for the mass murder known as war. How would we be reacting if the tables were turned? Someday, they most likely will be. – RJC

via David Swanson: Debunking the Myth of American Exceptionalism + The Day DC Was Bombed

President Trump: Can We Have Our Government Back Now?

The rapidly spinning maelstrom which has become the abnormal normal of the Administration of Donald Trump over the year plus that has elapsed since his inauguration has seemed to accelerate in recent weeks. Whether the news concerns primarily new developments in the Special Investigation led by Robert Mueller, more self-inflicted turmoil in terms of hiring, firing and/or otherwise dealing with turnover in his cabinet and other key White House staffers, or using his inimitable style to either create or deal with chaos on the international scene, the 24 hour news cycle seems to be covering our President almost to the exclusion of anyone or anything else.

As a week began with a ratcheting up of the Mueller investigation with a related warranted search of a key Trump lawyer’s home, office and hotel gave the vaunted Trump twitter feed a not-unexpected jolt. Speculation continues unabated as to how he will react to new allegations, revelations and other developments concerning potential impeachable offenses such as obstruction of justice or campaign irregularities which could create legal difficulties for himself and/or his campaign, transition and now White House staff members. Who will he fire next via Tweet after weeks of publicly denying his victim was in danger of losing their job? Who will resign next? Who will be indicted next or plea bargain with promises to testify for the Special Prosecutor? Can he do what he wants to do to fight for his own job without breaking any laws or violating the very Constitution he swore to uphold and defend?

Often, when speaking publicly on another topic, he will venture into totally unrelated topics and say things that catch even his closest advisors by surprise – like when he recently stated flat out that American troops would soon be leaving Syria, since ISIS seems to have just about been eradicated there. Surprised the heck out of the military leaders on the ground, at the Pentagon and including the Secretary of Defense. As also often happens, President Trump then managed to use outrage at the alleged use of chemical weapons by Syrian ruler Assad against his own people to totally reverse his position and engineer the massive missile attack on suspected Syrian chemical weapons facilities last Friday night. This attack was reminiscent of a similar attack conducted about a year ago for the same purported reason after a previous instance of alleged chemical weapons use by Assad’s forces.

President Trump, in his bold posturing and massive use of military force in Syria, seems to be willing to take big risks in order to capture the spotlight from other activities playing out back home. The expression “wagging the dog”, meaning to use some spectacular military stunt to distract people from noticing other pressing issues that do not shed a favorable light on their conduct, has been mentioned in this regard by various TV pundits. Indeed, there was a risk involved in this sort of attack in Syria. Russian and Iranian forces have been actively aiding the Assad regime in its brutal civil war which has resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths and created millions of refugees.

Likewise, President Trump has spent much effort publicly lambasting, deriding and threatening the dictator of North Korea, as well as the peace and stability of that region of the world, before more recently agreeing to meet with him to hold talks of a more diplomatic nature. The penchant he has displayed for blunt, threatening talk, followed by unilateral military action without consulting with Congress before acting stretches provisions of the War Powers Act as well as the Constitution itself. Refusing to put together either a foreign policy or national security team which is either stable over more than a few months or immune from being thrown under the bus at the President’s whim seems to be hurting our foreign policy, as has his public insults towards longtime allies and actions he has taken or threatened that could have catastrophic implications to the citizens of allied nations without so much as consulting with them in advance. South Korea, Japan and the entire Middle East come to mind in this regard.

Congress needs to wake up and start calling the President on these practices. I’d use the word stunts if the consequences of his behavior were not potentially so deadly serious for so many millions of people worldwide. Mr. Trump is President of the United States of America, not its king or dictator (much as he seems to seek to emulate so many of those ruling other countries with iron fists). The President needs to be held accountable for his actions and not offered unwavering allegiance by the rest of the government regardless of what he proposes to do. Congress and the Courts are supposed to be in place to share power and provide checks and balances to prevent unwise and precipitous conduct of each other and an Executive who may be hell-bent on abusing the authority granted the President by the Constitution, the voters and election laws that placed him or her in office. Bowing to Trump’s apparent penchant for an authoritarian leadership style (Though that’s probably a contradiction in terms – there is a distinct difference between ruling and leading) is neither wise nor democratic, in my opinion. While the Courts seem to be willing to pull their weight in this regard of late, Congress seems to have feet of clay when it comes to standing up to his rash behavior.

The only GOP members of Congress who seem willing to call for reining in Trump have been those who either already have or soon thereafter declared the end of their attempts to retain their seats in the House or Senate. There’s a difference between supporting the President’s agenda and going to the extreme of asking “how high” when he tells you to jump even if the command is issued at the edge of a cliff. Democrats have expressed many disagreements with and arguments against what the President has done, whether it pertains to missile strikes, other forms of armed intervention, or  on numerous domestic issues. That is to be expected. It is not expected for members of the President’s own party in Congress or even his own cabinet to bow to his wishes even when the results will be disastrous if followed through to their logical conclusion. As far as I have seen to this point, GOP leadership in the House and Senate has either done its best to accomplish nothing in many areas which have long needed legislative attention (immigration law being among the most prominent) or to just go along with what the President wants regardless of how the changes will affect most of the people they are responsible for representing (taxes, health care, labor rights, social safety net programs – to name a few).

Foreign policy by tweet is unacceptable. Personnel management by tweet is an insult to our intelligence and intentionally demeaning to those it is practiced on. If this Congress is unwilling or unable to perform its Constitutional responsibilities with regard to warfare and providing necessary checks and balances to the President in our government, thereby allowing him or her to take unto himself the kind of powers usually reserved for dictators or monarchs, both the President and the enabling members of Congress need to be replaced, preferably by peaceful, Constitutional means. Finishing up this special investigation in an unobstructed and cooperative manner, along with a good start at house cleaning in the midterm election in November could be good steps in the right direction. Letting Trump continue to rule by rants, insults, bullying and missile strikes is unacceptable.

Suggested Further Readings:

In ‘Clear Violation of Domestic and International Law,’ Trump Bombs Syria

International Law Experts Warn Trump That Attack on Syria Would Be ‘Crime of Aggression’

Trump Bombs Syria Hours After 88 Lawmakers Urged Him To First Consult Congress

Kucinich, CodePink: Trump Violates Constitution

Yesterday’s Syria Bombing: Exactly the Same Story As One Year Ago This Month!

There Is No Crime Larger Than War + Trump Has Just Committed A Murderous Immoral Criminal Action by David Swanson

Fascism Scholar Explains Why Trump’s ‘Desert Stormy’ Airstrike Is Totally Bogus

Mystery: How Wealth Creates Poverty in the World – by Michael Parenti

Is this what Donald Trump means when he promises to “Make America Great Again”? No, thanks. – RJC

via Mystery: How Wealth Creates Poverty in the World by Michael Parenti

‘I’ve Been to the Mountaintop’: The Final Speech

Needless to say, I’ll not be holding my breath waiting for President Trump to come anywhere near King’s eloquence in this speech. – RJC


The following is the transcribed text of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s final speech, delivered on April 3, 1968 at the Mason Temple in Memphis, Tennessee. | By Martin Luther King, Jr

Source: ‘I’ve Been to the Mountaintop’: The Final Speech

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